1. Dāna: practicing generosity and giving to charities. Kings are supposed to be liberal (open to new ideas), free from attachment to wealth or property and avoid selfishness. Revenue must be used for the purpose of implementing welfare works in their kingdoms.
2. Sīla: A King must maintain a high moral character and be exemplary (role model) in his day-to-day dealings. If a king is not virtuous, it will influence his people to conduct wrong doings and thereby cause moral degradation in the entire kingdom.
3. Pariccāga: A king should be ready to sacrifice one's own pleasure and comfort for the well-being of the subjects. With a philanthropic attitude, providing public facilities and initiating welfare works.
4. ājjava: Uprightness. He must be free from deception, false promises and pretensions. He must be sincere and must act on his words. He should only promise only what he is able to do, then only people repose faith in him.
5. Maddava: Gentleness. He must be kind, gentle, and approachable with a readiness to listen. He must be conscious he is a servant to the people.
6.Tapa: Self-control. He must practise restraint in sensual enjoyment. He should avoid luxurious lifestyle and instead should lead a simple and moderate life-style for the subjects to follow.
7. Akkodha: Absence of anger. He is free from anger, hatred and ill will and must not hold grudge which will lead to revenge. Tempted by anger, he should never take hasty decisions in respect of the kingdom or the people. He should be sober at all times to cultivate a healthy administration in view of the welfare of both the king and his subjects.
8. ahimsā: He exercises non-violence. He should not harass people for personal gain by wielding the royal power at his disposal. He must take steps to prevent the destruction of life and must take steps to promote peace within his territory.
9. Khanti: He practises patience. Not being irritated by adverse circumstances, he must cultivate qualities such as self-control, tolerance and understanding. Being of good temperament he must not override the bound of propriety.
10. Avirodha: agreeability. He should respect public opinion to promote peace and harmony. Absence of obstruction. He should not obstruct the will of the people. In other words, the country must be ruled, not by opposing progress, but by giving approval to those steps which are beneficial to his people. These ten rules can be applied even today by any government, that wishes to rule the country peacefully, reflecting a high moral standard of governing. By WHH
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