Once the Lord was touring in the Malla country with a large company of about 500 monks. At Pava, the Mallas' capital, he stayed in the mango-grove of Cunda the smith. At that time a new meeting-hall of the Mallas of Pava, called ubbhataka had recently been built and it had not yet been occupied by any ascetic or Brahmin or by any human being. Hearing that the Lord was staying in Cunda's mango-grove, the Mallas went to see him. Having saluted him, they sat down to one side and said: 'Lord, the Mallas of Pava have recently erected a new meeting hall, may the Blessed Lord be the first to use it! Should you do so, that would be for the lasting good and happiness of the Mallas of Pava.' And the Lord consented by silence.
Noting his consent, the Mallas rose, saluted him, passed out to his right and went to the meeting-hall. They spread mats all round, arranged seats, put out a water-pot and an oil- lamp, and then returning to report what they had done saying: 'Whenever the Blessed Lord is ready.' Then the Lord dressed, took his robe and bowl and went to the meeting-hall with his monks. There he washed his feet, entered the hall and sat down against the central pillar, facing east. The monks, having washed their feet, entered the hall and sat down along the western wall facing east with the Lord in front of them. The Pava Mallas washed their feet, entered the hall, and sat down along the eastern wall facing west, with the Lord in front of them.
Then the Lord spoke to the Mallas on Dhamma till far into the night, instructing, inspiring, firing and delighting them. Then he dismissed them, saying: 'Vasetthas, the night has passed away. Now do as you think fit.' So they got up, saluted the Lord, and went out, passing him by on the right. As soon as the Mallas had gone, Lord Buddha surveyed the monks sitting silently and said to the Venerable Sariputta: 'The monks are free from sloth-and-torpor, Sariputta. You think of a discourse on Dhamma to give to them. My back aches, I want to stretch it." Sariputta agreed. Then the Lord, having folded his robe in four, lay down on his right side in the lion-posture, with one foot on the other, mindful and clearly aware and bearing in mind the time to arise.
Now at that time the Nigantha Nataputta had just died at Pava. At his death the Niganthas were split into two parties, quarreling and disputing. (as per Sutta 29). Then Venerable Sariputta addressed the monks, referring to this situation and said: 'So ill-proclaimed was their teaching and discipline, so unedifying displayed, and so ineffectual in calming the passions, having been proclaimed by one who was not fully enlightened. But friends, this Dhamma has been well proclaimed by the Lord, the fully-enlightened One. Thus shall we should all recite it together without disagreement, so that this holy life may be enduring and established for a long time, thus to be for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans. And what is this Dhamma that has been well proclaimed by the Lord? There is one thing that was perfectly proclaimed by the Lord who knows and sees, the fully-enlightened Buddha. So we should all recite together. 'What is this one thing?' (I) All beings are maintained by nutriment (Eko dhammo). (2) All beings are maintained by conditions (aharatthitika).
'There are sets of two things that were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord, which are they?' (I) Mind and body (niman ca rupan ca). (2) Ignorance and craving for existence (avijja ca bhavatanha ca). (3) Belief in [continued] existence and belief in non-existence (bhava-ditthi ca vibhava-diffhi ca). (4) Lack of moral shame and lack of moral dread (ahirikan ca anottappari ca). (5) Moral shame and moral dread (hiri ca ottappari ca). (6) Roughness and friendship with evil (dovacassata ca papamittata ca). (7) Gentleness and friendship with good (sovacassata ca kalyanamittata ca). (8) Skill in knowing offences and the procedure for rehabilitation from them (apatti-kusalatLa ca apatti vutthana kusalata ca (9) Skill in entering and returning from jhana] (samapatti- kusalata ca samapatti-vutthana-kusalatla ca (10) Skill in knowing the 18 elements and in paying attention to them (dhatu-kusalata ca manasikara-kusala- ta ca) (11) Skill in knowing the 12 sense-spheres (ayatana- k) and dependent origination. (12) Skill in knowing what are causes and what are not (thana-k. ca atthana-k.) (13) Straightforwardness and modesty (ajjavan ca lajjavan ca) (14) Patience and gentleness (khanti ca soraccan ca). (15) Gentle speech and politeness (sakhalyan ca patisantharo ca). (16) Non-harming and purity (avihimsi ca soceyyan ca) (17) Lack of mindfulness and of clear awareness (muttha- saccan ca sampajannan ca). (18) Mindfulness and clear awareness (sati ca sampajannan ca). (19) Unguarded sense-doors and non-restraint in eating (... guttadvarata ca bhavana-balan ca). (20) Guarded sense-doors and restraint in eating (. . .guttadvarata. . . mattannuta). (21) Powers of reflection and mental development (pati- sankhana-balan ca bhavana-balan ca). (22) Powers of mindfulness and concentration (sati-balan ca samadhi-balan ca). (23) Calm and insight (samatho ca vipassana ca). (24) The sign of calm and grasping the sign (samatha-nimittan ca paggaha-nimittan ca). (25) Exertion and non-distraction (paggaho ca avikheppo ca). (26) Attainment of morality and right view (sila-sampada ca ditthi-sampada ca). (27) Failure of morality and view (sila-vipatti ca ditthi- vipatti ca). (28) Purity of morality and view (sila-visuddhi ca ditthi-visuddhi ca (29) Purity of view and the effort to attain it (ditthi-visuddhi kho pana yatha ditthissa ca padhanam). (30) Being moved to a sense of urgency by what should move one and the systematic effort of one so moved (samvego ca samvejaniyesu thanesu samviggassa ca yoniso padhanam). (31) Not being content with wholesome acts and not shrinking from exertion (asantutthiti ca kusalesu dhammesu appati- vanita ca padhanasmim). (32) Knowledge and liberation (vijja ca vimutti ca). (33) Knowledge of the destruction of the defilements and of their non-recurrence (khaye nanam anuppade nanam). These are the sets of two things that were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord.. .So we should all recite them together ...
There are sets of three things, Which are they?
(1) Three unwholesome roots: of greed, hatred, delusion (lobho akusala-mulam, doso akusala-mulam, moho akusala-mulam). (2) Three wholesome roots: of non-greed, non-hatred non- delusion (3) Three kinds of wrong conduct: in body, speech and thought (kaya-duccaritam, vaci-duccaritam, mano-duccaritam). (4) Three kinds of right conduct: in body, speech and thought (5) Three kinds of unwholesome thought (akusala-vitakka): of sensuality, of enmity, of cruelty (kama-vitakko, vyapada- vitakko, vihimsa-vitakko). (6) Three kinds of wholesome thought: of renunciation (nekkhamma-vitakko), of non-enmity, of non-cruelty. (7) Three kinds of unwholesome motivation sankappa): through sensuality, enmity, cruelty. (8) Three kinds of wholesome motivation: through renunciation (nekkhamma), non-enmity, non-cruelty. (9) Three kinds of unwholesome perception (sanna): of sensuality, of enmity, of cruelty. (10) Three kinds of wholesome perception: of renunciation, of non-enmity, of non-cruelty. (11) Three unwholesome elements (dhatuyo): sensuality, enmity, cruelty. (12) Three wholesome elements: renunciation, non-enmity, non-cruelty. (13) Three more elements: the element of sense-desire, the element of form, the formless element (kama-dhatu, arupa- dhatu, nirodha-dhatu). (14) Three more elements: the element of form, the formless element, the element of cessation (rupa-dhatu, arupa-dhatu, nirodha-dhau). (15) Three more elements: the low element, the middling element, the sublime element (hina dhatu, majjhima dhatu, paniti dhatu). (16) Three kinds of craving: sensual craving, craving for craving for extinction (kama-tana, bhava- tanha, vibhava-tanha). (17) Three more kinds of craving: craving for the World of Sense-Desires, for the World of Form, for the Formless World (kama-tanha, rupa-tanha, arupa-tanha).
(18) Three more kinds of craving: for the World of Form, for the Formless World, for cessation (as for (14)). (19) Three fetters (samyojanani): of personality-belief, of doubt, of attachment to rite and ritual (sakkaya-ditthi, vici- kiccha, silabbata-paramaso). (20) Three corruptions (asava): of sense-desire, of becoming, of ignorance (kamasavo, bhavasavo, avijjasavo). (21) Three kinds of becoming: in the World of Sense-Desire, of Form, in the Formless World (kama-bhavo, rupa-bhavo, arupa-bhavo). (22) Three quests: for sense-desires, for becoming, for the holy life (kamesana, bhavesana, brahmacariyesana). (23) Three forms of conceit: "I am better than. . . ", "I am equal to. . . ", "I am worse than. . . " ("seyyo 'ham asmiti" vidha, "sadiso 'ham asmiti" vidha, "hino 'ham asmiti" vidha). (24) Three times: past, future, present (atito addha, anagato addha, paccuppanno addha). (25) Three "ends" (anta) personality, its arising, its cessation (sakkaya anto, sakkaya-samudayo anto, sakkaya-nirodho anto). (26) Three feelings: pleasant, painful, neither (sukha vedana, dukkha vedana, adukkham-asukha vedana). (27) Three kinds of suffering: as pain, as inherent in formations, as due to change (dukkha-dukkhata, sankhara-dukkhata, viparinama-dukkhata). (28) Three accumulations: evil with fixed result, good with fixed result, indeterminate (micchatta-niyato rasi, sammatta-niyato rasi, aniyato-rasi). (29) Three obscurations (tama): One hesitates (kankhati), vacillates (vicikicchati), is undecided (nadhimuccati), is unsettled (na sampasidati) about the past, the future, the present. (30) Three things a Tathagata has no need to guard against: A Tathagata is perfectly pure in bodily conduct, in speech and in thought (parisuddha-kaya, vaci-, -mano-samacaro). There is no misdeed of body, speech or thought which he must conceal lest anyone should get to hear about it. (31) Three lust, hatred, delusion ( (rago kincanam, dosa kincanam, moho kincanam). (32) Three fires: lust, hatred, delusion (ragaggi, dosaggi, mohohaggi.)
(33) 'Three more fires: the fire of those to be revered, of the householder, of those worthy of offerings (ahuneyyaggi, gahapataggi, dakkhineyyaggi). (34) Threefold classification of matter: visible and resisting, invisible and resisting, invisible and unresisting (sanidas- sana-sappatigham rupam, anidassana-sappatigham rupam, anidas- sana-appatigham rupam). (35) Three kinds of karmic meritorious, demeritorious, imperturbable (punnabhisankharo, apunnabhi- sankharo, anenjabhisankharo). (36) Three persons: the learner, the non-learner, the one who is neither (sekho puggalo, asekho puggalo, n'eva sekho nasekho puggalo). (37) Three elders: an elder by birth, in Dhamma, by convention (jati-thero, dhamma-thero, sammuti-thero). (38) Three grounds based on merit: that of giving, of morality, of meditation (danamayam punna-kiriya-vatthu, silamayam punna-kiriya-vatthu, bhavanamaya punna-kiriya-vatthu). (39) Three grounds for reproof: based on what has been seen, heard, suspected (ditthena, sutena, parisankaya). (40) Three kinds of rebirth in the Realm of Sense-Desire (kamupapattiyo): There are beings who desire what presents itself to them (paccuppatthita-kama) and are in the grip of that desire, such as human beings, some devas, and some in states of woe. There are beings who desire what they have created (nimmita-kama),. . .such as the devas who Rejoice in Their Own Creation (Nimmanarati). There are beings who rejoice in the creations of others,. . .such as the devas Having Power over Others' Creation (Paranimmita-vasavatti). (41) Three happy rebirths (sukhupapattiyo): There are beings who having continually produced happiness now dwell in happiness, such as the devas of the Brahma group. There are beings who are overflowing with happiness, drenched with it, full of it, immersed in it, so that they occasionally exclaim: "Oh what bliss!" such as the Radiant devas (Abhassara). There are beings immersed in happiness, who, supremely blissful, experience only perfect happiness, such as the Lustrous devas (Subhakinna). (42) Three kinds of wisdom: of the learner, of the non-learner, of the one who is neither.
(43) Three more kinds of wisdom: based on thought, on learning [hearing], on mental development [meditation] (cintamaya panna, sutamaya panna, bhavanamaya panna). (44) Three armaments (avudhani): what one has learnt, detachment, wisdom (sutavudham, pavivekavudham, pannavudham). (45) Three faculties: of knowing that one will know the unknown, of highest knowledge, of the one who knows (anannatam-nassamitindriyam, annindriyam, annata-v-indriyam). (46) Three eyes: the fleshly eye, the divine eye, the eye of wisdom (mamsa-cakkhu, dibba-cakkhu, panna-cakkhu). (47) Three kinds of training: in higher morality, higher thought, higher wisdom (adhisila-sikkha, adhicitta-sikkha, adhipanna-sikkha). (48) Three kinds of development: of the emotions, of mind, of wisdom (kaya-bhavana, citta-bhavana, panna-bhavana). (49) Three "unsurpassables": of vision, of practice, of liberation (dassananuttariyam, patipadanuttariyam, vimuttanuttari- yam). (50) Three kinds of concentration: with thinking and pondering, with pondering without thinking, with neither (sa- vitakko savicaro samadhi, avitakko vicara-matto samadhi, avitakko avicaro samadhi). (51) Three more kinds of concentration: on emptiness, the "signless", desireless (sunnato samadhi, animitto samadhi, appanihito samadhi). (52) Three purities: of body, speech, mind (kaya-socceyyam, vaci-socceyyam, mano-socceyyam). (53) Three qualities of the sage:as to body, speech, mind (kaya-moneyyam, vaci-moneyyam, mano-moneyyam). (54) Three skills: in going forward, in going down, in means to progress (aya-kosallam, apaya-kosallam, upaya-kosallam). (55) Three intoxications: with health, with youth, with life (arogya-mado, yobbana-mado, jivita-mado). (56) Three predominant influences: oneself, the world, the Dhamma (attadhipateyyam, lokadhipateyyam, dhammadhipateyyam). (57) Three topics of discussion: Talk may be of the past: "That's how it used to be" of the future: "That's how it will be" of the present: "That's how it is now." , (58) Three knowledges: of one's past lives, of the decease and rebirth of beings, of the destruction of the corruptions (pubbenivasanussati-nanam vijja, sattanam cutupapate nanam vijja, asavanam khaye nanam vijja). (59) Three abidings: deva-abiding, Brahma-abiding, the Ariyan abiding (dibbo viharo, Brahma-vihiro, ariyo viharo). (60) Three miracles: of psychic power, of telepathy, of instruction (iddhi-patihariyam, adesana-patihariyam, anusasani- patihariyam). 'These are the sets of three things.. .So we should all recite together.. .for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.
There are sets of four things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord. . .
(1) Four foundations of mindfulness: Here a monk abides contemplating body as body, ardent, clearly aware and mindful, having put aside hankering and fretting for the world; he abides contemplating feelings as feelings. . . ; he abides contemplating mind as mind. . .; he abides contemplating mind- objects as mind-objects (2) Four great efforts (sammappadhana): Here a monk rouses his will, makes an effort, stirs up energy, exerts his mind and strives to prevent the arising of un-arisen evil unwholesome mental states. He strives to overcome evil unwholesome mental states that have arisen. He strives to produce un-arisen wholesome mental states. He strives to maintain wholesome mental states that have arisen, not to let them fade away, to bring them to greater growth, to the full perfection of development.
(3) Four roads to power (iddhipada): Here a monk develops concentration of intention accompanied by effort of will, concentration of energy, concentration of consciousness and concentration of investigation accompanied by effort of will. (4) Four jhanas: Here a monk, detached from all sense-desires, detached from unwholesome mental states, enters and remains in the first jhana, which is with thinking and pondering, born of detachment, filled with delight and joy. And with the subsiding of thinking and pondering, by gaining inner tranquility and oneness of mind, he enters and remains in the second jhana, which is without thinking and pondering, born of concentration, filled with delight and joy. And with the fading away of delight, remaining imperturbable, mindful and clearly aware, he experiences in himself that joy of which the Noble Ones say: "Happy is he who dwells with equanimity and mindfulness", he enters and remains in the third jhana. And, having given up pleasure and pain, and with the disappearance of former gladness and sadness, he enters and remains in the fourth jhana which is beyond pleasure and pain, and purified by equanimity and mindfulness. (5) Four concentrative meditations (samadhi-bhavana).: This meditation, when developed and expanded, leads to (a) happiness here and now (ditthadhamma-sukha), (b) gaining knowledge-and-vision (nana-dassana-patilabha), (c) mindfulness and clear awareness (sati-sampajanna) and (d) the destruction of the corruptions (asavanam khaya). (a) How does this practice lead to happiness here and now? Here, a monk practices the four jhanas. (b) How does it lead to the gaining of knowledge-and-vision? Here, a monk attends to the perception of light (alokasannam manasikaroti), he fixes his mind to the perception of day, by night as by day, by day as by night. In this way, with a mind clear and unclouded, he develops a state of mind that is full of brightness (sappabhasam cittam). (c) How does it lead to mindfulness and clear awareness? Here, a monk knows feelings as they arise, remain and vanish; he knows perceptions as they arise, remain and vanish; he knows thoughts (vitakka) as they arise, remain and vanish. (d) How does this practice lead to the destruction of the corruptions? Here, a monk abides in the contemplation of the rise and fall of the five aggregates of grasping (panc'upadana- kkhandesu udayabbayanupassi): "This is material form, this is its arising, this is its ceasing; these are feelings; this is perception; these are the mental formations; this is consciousness, this is its arising, this is its ceasing."
(6) Four boundless states. Here, a monk, with a heart filled with loving-kindness, pervades first one quarter, then the second, the third and the fourth. Thus he stays, spreading the thought of loving-kindness everywhere, always with a heart filled with loving-kindness, abundant, magnified, unbounded, without hatred or ill-will. And likewise with compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity. (7) Four formless jhanas. Here, a monk, by passing entirely beyond bodily sensations, by the disappearance of all sense of resistance and by non-attraction to the perception of diversity, seeing that space is infinite, reaches and remains in the Sphere of Infinite Space. And by passing entirely beyond the Sphere of Infinite Space, seeing that consciousness is infinite, he reaches and remains in the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness. By passing entirely beyond the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness, seeing that there is nothing, he reaches and remains in the Sphere of No-Thingness. And by passing entirely beyond the Sphere of NoThingness, he reaches and remains in the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception. (8) Four supports (apassenani): Here a monk judges that one thing is to be pursued, one thing endured, one thing avoided, one thing suppressed. (9) Four Ariyan lineages (ariya-vamsa): (a) a monk is content with any old robe, praises such contentment and does not try to obtain robes improperly or unsuitably. He does not worry if he does not get a robe and if he does, he is not full of greedy, blind desire, but makes use of it, aware of the dangers and wisely aware of its true purpose. Nor is he conceited about being thus content with any old robe and he does not disparage others. One who is thus skillful, not lax, clearly aware and mindful is known as a monk who is true to the ancient, original (agganne) Ariyan lineage. (b) a monk is content with any alms-food he may get.. . (c) a monk is content with any old lodging-place. . . (d) a monk being fond of abandoning (pahana), rejoices in abandoning, and being fond of developing (bhavana), rejoices in developing, is not therefore conceited. . One who is thus skillful, not lax, clearly aware and mindful, is known as a monk who is true to the ancient, original Ariyan lineage. (10) Four efforts: The effort of (a) restraint (samvara-padha- nam) (b) abandoning (pahana-p.) (c) development (bhavana- p.) (d) preservation (anurakkhana-p.) What is (a) the effort of restraint? Here a monk, upon seeing an object with the eye, does not grasp at the whole or its details, striving to restrain what might cause evil, unwholesome states, such as hankering or sorrow, to flood in on him. Thus he watches over the sense of sight and guards it (similarly with sounds, smells, tastes, tactile sensations, thoughts). What is (b) the effort of abandoning? Here, a monk does not assent to a thought of lust, of hatred, of cruelty that has arisen, but abandons it, dispels it, destroys it, makes it disappear. What is (c) the effort of development? Here, a monk develops the enlightenment- factor of mindfulness, based on solitude, detachment, extinction,leading to maturity of surrender (vossagga-parinamim); he develops the enlightenment-factor of investigation of states, . . .of energy,. . .of delight,. . .of tranquility,. . .of concentration,. . .of equanimity, based on solitude, detachment, extinction, leading to maturity of surrender. What is (d) the effort of preservation? Here, a monk keeps firmly in his mind a favorable object of concentration which has arisen, such as a skeleton, or a corpse that is full of worms, blue-black, full of holes, bloated.
(11) Four knowledges: knowledge of Dhamma, of what is consonant with it (anvaye nanam), knowledge of others' minds (paricce nanam), conventional knowledge (sammuti-nannam). (12) Four more knowledges: knowledge of suffering, its origin, its cessation, the path. (13) Four factors of Stream-Attainment (sotapattiyangani): association with good people (sappurisa-samseva), hearing the true Dhamma, thorough attention (yoniso manasikara), practice of the Dhamma in its entirety (dhammanudhamma-patipatti). (14) Four characteristics of a Stream-Winner: Here, the Ariyan disciple is possessed of (a) unwavering confidence in the Buddha, thus: "This Blessed Lord is an Arahant, a fully-enlightened Buddha, endowed with wisdom and conduct, the Well-Farer, Knower of the worlds, incomparable Trainer of men to be tamed, Teachers of gods and humans, enlightened and blessed." (b) He is possessed of unwavering confidence in the Dhamma, thus: "Well-proclaimed by the Lord is the Dhamma, visible here and now, timeless, inviting inspection, leading onward, to be comprehended by the wise each one for himself." (c) He is possessed of unwavering confidence in the Sangha, thus: "Well-directed is the Sangha of the Lord's disciples, of upright conduct, on the right path, on the perfect path; that is to say the four pairs of persons, the eight kinds of men. The Sangha of the Lord's disciples is worthy of offerings, worthy of hospitality, worthy of gifts, worthy of veneration, an unsurpassed field of merit in the world." (d) he is possessed of morality dear to the Noble Ones, unbroken, without defect, without inconsistency, liberating, praised by the wise, un-corrupted, and conducive to concentration.
(15) Four fruits of the ascetic life: the fruits of Stream-Entry, of the Once-Returner, of the Non-Returner, of Arahantship. (16) Four elements: the elements of "earth, "water", "fire", "air" (pathavi-, apo-, tejo-, vayo-dhatu). (17) Four nutriments (ahara): "material" (kabalinkkra) food, gross or subtle; contact as second; mental volition (manosancetana) as third; consciousness as fourth. (18) Four stations of consciousness (vinnana-tthitiyo): Consciousness gains a footing either (a) in relation to materiality, with materiality as object and basis, as a place of enjoyment, or similarly in regard to (b) feelings, (c) perceptions or (d) mental formations, and there it grows, increases and flourishes. (19) Four ways of going wrong (agata-gamanam): One goes wrong through desire (chanda),hatred, delusion, fear. (20) Four arousals of craving: Craving arises in a monk because of robes, alms, lodging, being and non-beingings (iti- bhavabhava-hetu).
(21) Four kinds of progress: (a) painful progress with slow comprehension (b) painful progress with quick comprehension (c) pleasant progress with slow comprehension (d) pleasant progress with quick comprehension (22) Four more kinds of progress: (a)progress with impatience (akkhama patipada) (b) patient progress (khama p.) (c) controlled progress (dama p.) (d) calm progress (sama patipada) (23) Four ways of dhamma: (a) without hankering (b) without enmity (c) with right mindfulness (d) with right concentration. (24) Four ways of undertaking Dhamma: There is the way that is (a) painful in the present and brings painful future results (dukkha-vipakam) (b) painful in the present and brings pleasant future results (sukha-vipakam) (c) pleasant in the present and brings painful future results (d) pleasant in the present and brings pleasant future results.
(25) Four divisions of Dhamma: morality, concentration, wisdom, liberation. (26) Four powers: energy, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom. (27) Four kinds of resolve (adhitthanani): to gain (a) wisdom, (b) truth (sacca), (c) relinquishment (caga), (d) tranquility (Upasama) (28) Four ways of answering questions: the question (a) to be answered directly (ekamsa-vyakaraniyo panho), (b) requiring an explanation (vibhajja-v. p.) (c) requiring a counter- question (patipuccha-v. p.), (d) to be set aside (thapaniyo panha).
(29) Four kinds of kamma: There is (a) black kamma with black result (kanha-vipakam) (b) bright kamma with bright result (sukka-v.) (c) black-and-bright kamma with black-and- bright result (kanha-sukka v.) (d) kamma that is neither black nor bright (akanham-asukkam), with neither black nor bright result, leading to the destruction of kamma (30) Four things to be realized by seeing (sacchikaraniya dhamma): (a) former lives, to be realized by recollection (satiya) (b) passing-away and re-arising to be realized by the divine eye (c) the eight deliverances to be realized with the mental body (kayena) (d) the destruction of the corruptions, to be realized by wisdom. (31) Four floods (ogha): sensuality, becoming, wrong views, ignorance. (32) Four yokes (yoga). (33) Four "unyokings" (visamyoga): from sensuality, becoming, views, ignorance. (34) Four ties (gantha): the "body tie" (kaya-gantha) of hankering (abhijjha), ill-will (vyapada), attachment to rite and ritual (silabbata-paramasa), dogmatic fanaticism (idam-sacca- bhinivesa). (35) Four clingings (upadanani): to sensuality, to views (ditthi), to rules and ritual (silabbata-paramasa), to ego-belief (attavada). (36) Four kinds of generation: from an egg, from a womb, from moisture, spontaneous rebirth (opapatika yoni)
(37) Four ways of descent into the womb: (a) One descends into the mother's womb unknowing, stays there unknowing, and leaves it unknowing (b) one enters the womb knowing, stays there unknowing and leaves it unknowing (c) one enters the womb knowing, stays there knowing, and leaves it unknowing (d) one enters the womb knowing, stays there knowing, and leaves it knowing (as Sutta 28, verse 5). (38) Four ways of getting a new personality (attabhava-patilabha): There is an acquisition of personality that is brought about by (a) one's own volition, not another's (b) another's volition, not one's own, (c) both, (d) neither (39) Four purifications of offerings (dakkhina-visuddhiyo): there is the offering purified (a) by the giver but not by the recipient (b) by the recipient but not by the giver, (c) by neither (d) by both. (40) Four bases of sympathy (samgaha-vatthuni): generosity, pleasing speech, beneficial conduct and impartiality. (41) Four un-Ariyan modes of speech: lying, slander, abuse, idle gossip. (42) Four Ariyan modes of speech: refraining from lying, slander, abuse, idle gossip. (43) Four more un-Ariyan modes of speech: claiming to have seen, heard, sensed (muta), known what one has not seen, heard, sensed, known. (44) Four more Ariyan modes of speech: stating that one has not seen, heard, sensed, known what one has not seen, heard sensed, known. (45) Four more un-Ariyan modes of speech: claiming not to have seen, heard, sensed, known what one has seen, heard, sensed, known. (46) Four more Ariyan modes of speech: stating that one has seen, heard, sensed, known what one has seen, heard, sensed, known. (47) Four persons: Here a certain man (a) torments himself (attan-tapo hoti), is given to self-tormenting, (b) torments others (paran-tapo hoti) (c) torments himself and others (d) torments neither himself nor others. Thereby he dwells in this life without craving, released (nibbuto), cool, enjoying bliss, become as Brahma (brahma-bhutena).
(48) Four more persons: Here a man's life benefits (a) himself but not others (b) others but not himself (c) neither (d) both. (49) Four more persons: (a) living in darkness and bound for darkness (tamo tamaparayana) (b) living in darkness and bound for the light (tamo jotiparayana (c) living in the light and bound for darkness (d) living in the light and bound for the light. (50) Four more persons: (a) the unshakeable ascetic (samanam-acalo) (b) the "blue-lotus" ascetic (c) the "white-lotus" ascetic (d) the subtly-perfect ascetic (samana-sukhumalo).
These are the sets of four things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord.. .So we should all recite them together. . .for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans. [End of first recitation-section]
There are sets of five things perfectly proclaimed. . . (1) Five aggregates: body, feelings, perceptions, mental formations, consciousness. (2) Five aggregates of grasping (pancupadana-kkhandha) (3) Five strands of sense-desire (panca kama-guna): a sight seen by the eye, a sound heard by the ear, a smell smelt by the nose, a flavor tasted by the tongue, a tangible object felt by the body as being desirable, attractive, nice, charming, associated with lust and arousing passion. (4) Five post-mortem destinies (gatiyo): hell (nirayo), animal-rebirth (tiracchana-yoni), the realm of hungry ghosts (peta), humankind, the deva world. (5) Five kinds of begrudging (macchariyani): as to dwelling-place, families, gains, beauty (vanna), Dhamma. (6) Five hindrances: sensuality (kamacchanda), ill-will (vyapada), sloth-and-torpor (thina-middha), worry-and-flurry (uddhacca-kukkucca), sceptical doubt (vicikiccha). (7) Five lower fetters: personality-belief (sakkaya-ditthi), doubt, attachment to rite and ritual (silabbata-paramasa), sensuality, ill-will. (8) Five higher fetters: craving for the world of form (rupa- raga), craving for the formless world (arupa-raga), conceit (mana), restlessness (uddhacca), ignorance. (9) Five rules of training (sikkhapadani): refraining from taking life, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, lying speech, strong drink and sloth-producing drugs (sura-meraya- majja-pamidatthana). (10) Five impossible things: An Arahant is incapable of (a) deliberately taking the life of a living being (b) taking what is not given so as to constitute theft (c) sexual intercourse (d) telling a deliberate lie (e) storing up goods for sensual indulgence as he did formerly in the household life (as Sutta 29, verse 26).
(11) Five kinds of loss (vyasanani): Loss of relatives, wealth, health, morality, right view. No beings fall into an evil state, a hell-state. . .after death because of loss or relatives, wealth or health; but beings do fall into such states by loss of morality and right view. (12) Five kinds of gain (sampada): Gain of relatives, wealth, health, morality, right view. No beings arise in a happy, heavenly state after death because of the gain of relatives, wealth or health; but beings are reborn in such states because of gains in morality and right view. (13) Five dangers to the immoral through lapsing from morality (14) Five benefits to the moral through preserving morality (15) Five points to be borne in mind by a monk wishing to rebuke another: (a) I will speak at the proper time, not the wrong time (b) I will state the truth, not what is false (c) I will speak gently, not roughly (d) 1 will speak for his good, not for his harm (e) I will speak with love in my heart, not with enmity.
(16) Five factors of endeavor: Here, a monk (a) has faith, trusting in the enlightenment of the Tathagata: "Thus this Blessed Lord is an Arahant, a fully-enlightened Buddha. . . " (b) is in good health, suffers little distress or sickness, having a good digestion and a normal temperature suitable for exertion (c) is not fraudulent or deceitful, showing himself as he really is to his teacher or to the wise among his companions in the holy life (d) keeps his energy constantly stirred up for abandoning unwholesome states and arousing wholesome states and is firm in advancing and persisting in wholesome states (e) is a man of wisdom, endowed with wisdom concerning rising and cessation, with the Ariyan penetration that leads to the complete destruction of suffering.
(17) Five Pure Abodes (suddhavasa): Aviha, Unworried (Atappa), Clearly Visible (Sudassa), Clear-Sighted (Sudassi), Peerless (Akanittha). (18) Five kinds of Non-Returner (anagami): the "less- than-half-timer", the "more-than-half-timer", the "gainer without exertion", the "gainer with exertion", "he who goes upstream to the highest". (19) Five mental blockages (ceto-khila): Here, a monk has doubts and hesitations (a) about the Teacher, is dissatisfied and cannot settle in his mind. Thus his mind is not inclined towards ardor, devotion, persistence and effort (b) about the Dhamma . . .(c) about the Sangha. . (d) about the training . .(e) he is angry and displeased with his fellows in the holy life, he feels depressed and negative towards them. Thus his mind is not inclined towards ardor, devotion, persistence and effort.
(20) Five mental bondages (cetaso vinibandha): Here, a monk has not got rid of the passion, desire, love, thirst (pipasa), fever, craving (tanha) (a) for sense-desires (kame): thus his mind is not inclined towards ardor, devotion, persistence and effort (b) for the body (kaye). . . (c) for physical objects (rupe). . . (d) having eaten as much as his belly will hold, he abandons himself to the pleasure of lying down, of contact, of sloth (e) he practices the holy life for the sake of becoming a member of some body of devas (deva-nikaya) thinking: "By means of these rites or this discipline, this austerity or this holy life I shall become one of the devas, great or small." Thus his mind is not inclined towards ardour, devotion, persistence and effort. (21) Five faculties (indriyani): the faculty of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body. (22) Five more faculties: pleasant bodily feeling (sukha), pain (dukkha), gladness (somanassa), sadness (domanassa), in- different feeling (upekha)
(23) Five more faculties: faith (saddha), energy, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom. (24) Five elements making for deliverance (nissaraniya dhatu-yo): (a) Here, when a monk considers sense-desires, his mind does not leap forward and take satisfaction in them, fix on them or make free with them but when he considers renunciation it does leap forward, take satisfaction in it, fix on it, and make free with it. And he gets disconnected from sense-desires. Thus he is freed from the corruptions (asava), the vexations that arise from sense-desires and he does not feel that sensual feeling. This is called the deliverance from sense-desires. The same applies to (b) ill-will, (c) cruelty, (d) forms (e) personality (sakkaya). (25) Five bases of deliverance (vimuttayatanani): Here (a) the Teacher or a respected fellow-disciple teaches a monk Dhamma. As he receives the teaching, he gains a grasp of both the spirit and the letter of the teaching. At this, joy arises in him and from this joy, delight (piti) and by this delight his senses are calmed, he feels happiness (sukham) as a result and with this happiness his mind is established (b) he has not heard it but in the course of teaching Dhamma to others he has learnt it by heart as he has heard it (c) as he is chanting the Dhamma . . (d) when he applies his mind to the Dhamma, thinks and ponders over it and concentrates his attention on it (anupekkhati) (e) when he has properly grasped some concentration-sign (samadhi-nimittam), applied his mind to it (supadhari- tam) and has well penetrated it with wisdom (suppatividdham pannaya). At this, joy arises in him, and from this joy, delight; and by this delight his senses are calmed, he feels happiness as a result and with this happiness his mind is established. (26) Five perceptions making for maturity of liberation: the perception of impermanence (anicca-sanna), of suffering in impermanence (anicca dukkha-sanna), of impersonality in suffering (dukkhe anatta-sanna), of abandoning (pahana-sanna), of dispassion (viraga-sanna). These are the sets of five things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord. . .
There are sets of six things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord (1) Six internal sense-spheres (ajjhattikani ayatanam): eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-(kayayatanam), mind-sense-sphere (manayatanam). (2) Six external sense-spheres (bahirani ayatanam): sight- object (rupayatanam), sound-, smell-, taste-, tangible object (phottabbayatanam), mind-object (dhammayatanam). (3) Six groups of consciousness (vinnana-kaya): eye-consciousness, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-consciousness. (4) Six groups of contact (phassa-kaya): eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-contact (mano-samphasso). (5) Six groups of feeling (vedana-kaya): feeling based on eye-contact (cakkhu-samphassaja vedana), on ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-contact.
(6) Six groups of perception (sanna-kaya): perception of sights (rupa-sanna), of sounds, of smells, of tastes, of touches, of mind-objects (dhamma-sannaa). (7) Six groups of volition (sancetana-kaya): volition based on sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touches, mind-objects. (8) Six groups of craving (tanha-kaya): craving for sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touches, mind-objects. (9) Six kinds of disrespect (agarava): Here, a monks behaves disrespectfully and discourteously towards the Teacher, the Dhamma, the Sangha, the training, in respect of earnestness (appamade), of hospitality (patisanthare). (10) Six kinds of respect (garava): Here, a monk behaves respectfully and courtesously towards the teacher, the dhamma, the sangha, the training.
(11) Six pleasurable investigations (somanassupavicara): When upon seeing a sight-object with the eye, on hearing. . ., smelling. . . , tasting. . . , touching. . . , knowing a mind-object with the mind, one investigates a corresponding object productive of pleasure. (12) Six un-pleasurable investigations: (as (11) but: productive of displeasure). (13) Six indifferent investigations: (as (11) but: productive of indifference (upekha). (14) Six things conducive to communal living (saraniya dhamma): As long as monks both in public and in private show loving-kindness to their fellows in acts of body, speech and thought, share with their virtuous fellows whatever they receive as a rightful gift, including the contents of their alms- bowls, which they do not keep to themselves, keep consistently, unbroken and unaltered those rules of conduct that are spotless, leading to liberation, praised by the wise, unstained and conducive to concentration, and persist therein with their fellows both in public and in private, continue in that noble view that leads to liberation, to the utter destruction of suffering, remaining in such awareness with their fellows both in public and in private (as Sutta 16, verse I. 11).
(15) Six roots of contention (vivada-mulani): (a) a monk is angry and bears ill-will, he is disrespectful and discourteous to the Teacher, the Dhamma and the Sangha and does not finish his training. He stirs up contention within the Sangha, which brings woe and sorrow to many, with evil consequences, misfortune and sorrow for devas and humans. If, friends, you should discover such a root of contention among yourselves or among others, you should strive to get rid of just that root of contention. If you find no such root of contention then you should work to prevent its overcoming you in future. (b) a monk is deceitful and malicious (makkhi hoti palasi). . . (c) a monk is envious and mean.. . (d) a monk is cunning and deceitful. . . (e) a monk is full of evil desires and wrong views. . . (f) a monk is opinionated (sanditthi-paramasi), obstinate and tenacious...
(16) Six elements: the earth, water, fire, air, space-element (akasa-dhatu), the consciousness-element (vinnana-dhatu). (17) Six elements making for deliverance (nissaraniya-dhatuyo): Here, a monk might say: (a) "I have developed the emancipation of the heart (ceto-vimutti) by loving-kindness (metta), expanded it, made it a vehicle and a base, set it well in train. And yet ill-will still grips my heart." He should be told: "No! do not say that! Do not misrepresent the Blessed Lord, it is not right to slander him as he would not have said such a thing! Your words are unfounded and impossible. If you have developed the emancipation of the heart through loving-kindness, ill-will has no chance to envelop your heart. This emancipation through loving-kindness is the cure for ill-will." (b) he might say: "I have developed the emancipation of the heart through compassion (karuna) and yet cruelty still grips my heart. . ." (c) he might say: "I have developed the emancipation of the heart through sympathetic joy (mudita), and yet aversion (arati) still grips my heart. . . " (d) he might say: "I have developed the emancipation of the heart through equanimity (upekha), and yet lust (rago) grips my heart." (e) he might say: "I have developed the signless emancipation of the heart (animitta ceto-vimutti) and yet my heart still hankers after signs (nimittanusari hoti) . . . " (f) he might say: "The idea 'I am' is repellent to me, I pay no heed to the idea: 'I am this.' Yet doubts, uncertainties and problems still grip my heart. . ."
(18) Six unsurpassed things (anuttariyani):"certain sights, things heard, gains, training, forms of service (pari- cariyanuttariyam), objects of recollection. (19) Six subjects of recollection (anussati-tthanani): the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sangha, morality, renunciation, the devas. (20) Six stable states (satata-vihara): On seeing an object with the eye, hearing a sound, smelling a smell, tasting a flavor, touching a tangible object or cognising a mental object with the mind, one is neither pleased (sumano) nor displeased (dummano), but remains equable (upekhako), mindful and clearly aware. (21) Six "species" (abhijatiyo): Here (a) one born in dark conditions lives a dark life (b) one born in dark conditions lives a bright life (c) one born in dark conditions attains Nibbana, which is neither dark nor bright (d) one born in bright conditions lives a dark life (e) one born in bright conditions leads a bright life, (f) one born in bright conditions attains Nibbana which is neither dark nor bright.
(22) Six perceptions conducive to penetration (nibbedha-bha- giya-sanna): the perception of impermanence, of suffering in impermanence, of impersonality in suffering, of abandoning, of dispassion and the perception of cessation (nirodha-sanna). These are the sets of six things which were perfectly pro- claimed by the Lord. . . '
There are sets of seven things which have been perfectly proclaimed by the Lord. . . (1) Seven Ariyan treasures (ariya-dhanani): faith, morality, moral shame (hiri), moral dread (ottappa), learning (suta), renunciation (caga), wisdom. (2) Seven factors of enlightenment (sambojjhanga): mindfulness, investigation of phenomena, energy, delight (piti), tranquility, concentration, equanimity. (3) Seven requisites of concentration: right view, thought, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness. (4) Seven wrong practices (asaddhamma): Here, a monk lacks faith, lacks moral shame, lacks moral dread, has little learning, is slack (kusito), is unmindful (mutthassati), lacks wisdom. (5) Seven right practices (saddhamma): Here a monk has faith, moral shame and moral dread, has much learning, has aroused vigor (araddha-viriyo), has established mindfulness (upatthita-sati hoti), possesses wisdom.
(6) Seven qualities of the true man (sappurisa-dhamma): Here, a monk is a knower of the Dhamma, of meanings (atthannu), of self (attannu), of moderation (mattannu), of the right time, of groups (parisannu), of persons. (7) Seven grounds for commendation (niddasa-vatthuni), Here, a monk is keenly anxious (a) to undertake the training and wants to persist in this (b) to make a close study of the Dhamma (c) to get rid of desires (d) to find solitude (e) to arouse energy (f) to develop mindfulness and discrimination (sati-nepakke), (8) to develop penetrative insight (8) Seven perceptions: perception of impermanence, of not- self, of foulness (asubhasanna), of danger, of abandonment, of dispassion, of cessation. (9) Seven powers (balani): of faith, energy, moral shame, moral dread, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom.
(10) Seven stations of consciousness: Beings (a) different in body and different in perception (b) different in body and alike in perception (c) alike in body and different in perception (d) alike in body and alike in perception (e) who have attained to the Sphere of Infinite Space (f). . .of Infinite Consciousness (g). . .of NoThingness (11) Seven persons worthy of offerings: The Both-Ways- Liberated, the Wisdom-Liberated, the Body-Witness, the Vision-Attainer, the Faith-Liberated, the Dhamma-Devotee, the Faith-Devotee
12) Seven latent proclivities (anusaya): sensuous greed (ka- ma-raga), resentment (patigha), views, doubt, conceit, craving for becoming (bhava-raga), ignorance. (13) Seven fetters (samyojanani): complaisance (anunaya), resentment (then as (12)). (14) Seven rules for the pacification and settlement of disputed questions that have been (a) proceedings face-to-face (b) recollection (sati) (c) mental derangement (d) confession (e) majority verdict (f) habitual bad character (g) "covering over with grass". These are the sets of seven things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord.. .So we should all recite them together. . .for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.'
There are sets of eight things perfectly proclaimed by the Lord. . . (1) Eight wrong factors (micchatta): wrong view. . .(the reverse of (2) below). (2) Eight right factors (sammatta): right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. (3) Eight persons worthy of offerings:"13 the Stream-Winner and one who has practiced to gain the fruit of Stream- Entry, the Once-Returner.. ., the Non-Returner.. ., the Arahant and one who has worked to gain the fruit of Arahantship. (4) Eight occasions of indolence (kusita-vatthuni): Here a monk (a) has a job to do. He thinks: "I've got this job to do, but it will make me tired. I'll have a rest." So he lies down and does not stir up enough energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized. Or (b) he has done some work and thinks: "I've done this work, now I'm tired. I'll have a rest." So he lies down. . .Or (c) he has to go on a journey, and thinks: "I have to go on this journey. It will make me tired.. ." Or (d) he has been on a journey. . .Or (e) he goes on the alms-round in a village or town and does not get his fill of food, whether coarse or fine, and he thinks: "I've gone for alms. . . my body is tired and useless. . . " Or (f) he goes on the alms-round . . . and gets his fill. . .He thinks: "I've gone for alms. . .and my body is heavy and useless as if I were pregnant.. ."' Or (g) he has developed some slight indisposition, and he thinks: "I'd better have a rest. . ." Or (h) he is recuperating, having not long recovered from an illness, and he thinks: "My body is weak and useless. I'll have a rest." So he lies down and does not stir up enough energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized.
(5) Eight occasions for making an effort (arabbha-vatthuni): Here a monk (a) has a job to do. He thinks: "I've got this job to do, but in doing it I won't find it easy to pay attention to the teaching of the Buddhas. So I will stir up sufficient energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized." Or (b) he has done some work, and thinks: "Well, I did the job, but because of it I wasn't able to pay sufficient attention to the teaching of the Buddhas. So I will stir up sufficient energy. . ." Or (c) he has to go on a journey. . .Or (d) he has been on a journey. He thinks: "I've been on this journey, but because of it I wasn't able to pay sufficient attention. . . " Or (e) he goes for alms. . .with- out getting his fill. . .And he thinks: "So my body is light and fit. I'll stir up energy. . ." Or (f) he goes for alms. . .and gets his fill. . .And he thinks: "So my body is strong and fit. I'll stir up energy.. ." Or (g) he has some slight indisposition.. . and he thinks: "This indisposition might get worse, so I'll stir up energy.. ." Or (h) he is recuperating.. .and he thinks: " . . .it might be that the illness will recur. So I'll stir up energy. . ." Thus he stirs up sufficient energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized.
(6) Eight bases for giving: One gives (a) as occasion offers (asajja) (b) from fear, (c) thinking: "He gave me something", (d) thinking: "He will give me something", (e) thinking: "It is good to give", (f) thinking: "I am cooking something, they are not. It would not be right not to give something to those who are not cooking", (g) thinking; "If I make this gift I shall acquire a good reputation" (h) in order to adorn and prepare one's heart. (7) Eight kinds of rebirth due to generosity: Here, someone gives an ascetic or Brahmin food, drink, clothes, transport (yanam), garlands, perfumes and ointments, sleeping accommodation, a dwelling, or lights and he hopes to receive a return for his gifts. He sees a rich Khattiya or Brahmin or householder living in full enjoyment of the pleasures of the five senses and he thinks: "If only when i die I may be I reborn as one of these rich people!" He sets his heart on this thought, fixes it and develops it (bhaveti).This thought being at such a low level (hine) and not developed to a higher level (uttarim abhavitam) leads to rebirth right there. But I say this of a moral person, not of an immoral one. The mental aspiration of a moral person is effective through its purity Or (b) he gives such gifts and having heard that the devas in the realm of the Four Great Kings live long, are good-looking and lead a happy life, he thinks: "If only I could be reborn there!" Or he similarly aspires to rebirth in the heavens of (c) the Thirty-Three Gods, (d) the yama devas, (e) the Tusita devas, (f) the Nimmanarati devas (g) the Paranimmita-vasavatti devas. And this thought leads to rebirth right there. . .The mental aspiration of a moral per- son is effective through its purity. Or (h) he similarly aspires to rebirth in the world of Brahma. But I say this of a moral person, not an immoral one, one freed from passion (vitaragassa), not swayed by passion. The mental aspiration of such a moral person is effective through liberation from passion.
(8) Eight assemblies: the assembly of Khattiyas, Brahmins, householders, ascetics, devas of the Realm of the Four Great Kings, of the Thirty-Three Gods, of maras, of Brahmas (9) Eight worldly conditions (loka-dhamma): gain and loss, fame and shame (yaso ca ayaso ca), blame and praise, happiness and misery. (10) Eight stages of mastery: (a) perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms, limited and beautiful or ugly; (b) as (a) but unlimited (c) not perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms, limited (d) (as (c) but unlimited; not perceiving forms internally, one perceives forms that are (e) blue, (f) yellow, (g) red, (h) white (
(11) Eight liberations: (a) possessing form, one sees forms (b) not perceiving material forms in oneself, one sees them outside (c) thinking: "It is beautiful", one becomes intent on it; one enters (d) the Sphere of Infinite Space; (e). . .the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness (f) . . .the Sphere of NoThingness (g) . . .the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception; (h). . .the Cessation of Perception and Feeling These are the sets of eight things that the lord declared.
There are sets of nine things the lord declared. (I) Nine causes of malice (aghata-vatthuni): Malice is stirred up by the thought: (a) "He has done me an injury", (b) "He is doing me an injury", (c) "He will do me an injury", (d)-(f) "He has done, is doing, will do an injury to someone who is dear and pleasant to me", (g)-(i) "he has done, is doing, will do a favor to someone who is hateful and unpleasant to me." (2) Nine ways of overcoming malice (aghata-pativinaya): Malice is overcome by the thought: (a)-(i) "He has done me an injury. . . " (as (I)). "What good would it do to harbor malice?" (3) Nine abodes of beings (a) Beings different in body and different in perception (b) beings different in body and alike in perception (c) beings alike in body and different in perception (d) beings alike in body and alike in perception (e) the Realm of Unconscious Beings, (f) the Realm of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception (g) beings who have attained to the Sphere of Infinite Space (h) beings who have attained to the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness (i) beings who have attained to the Sphere of NoThingness
(4) Nine unfortunate, inopportune times for leading the holy life (akkhana asamaya brahmacariya-vasaya): (a) A Tathagata has been born in the world, Arahant, fully-enlightened Buddha, and the Dhamma is taught which leads to calm and perfect Nibbana, which leads to enlightenment as taught by the Well-Farer, and this person is barn in a hell-state (nirayam) (b) . . .among the animals (c) . . .among the petas (d) . . .among the asuras, (e) . . .in a long-lived group of deva or (f) he is born in the border regions among foolish barbarians where there is no access for monks and nuns, or male and female lay-followers or (g) he is born in the Middle Country but he has wrong views and distorted vision, thinking: "There is no giving, offering or sacrificing, there is no fruit or result of good or bad deeds; there is not this world and the next world; there are no parents and there is no spontaneous rebirth; there are no ascetics and Brahmins in the world who having attained to the highest and realized for themselves the highest knowledge about this world and the next, proclaim it" or (h). . .he is born in the Middle Country but lacks wisdom and is stupid, or is deaf and dumb and cannot tell whether something has been well said or ill said; or else (i) no Tathagata has arisen. . . and this person is born in the Middle Country and is intelligent, not stupid, not deaf or dumb, and well able to tell whether something has been well said or ill said.
(5) Nine successive abidings: the jhanas and Spheres of In- finite Space, Infinite Consciousness, NoThingness, Neither- Perception-Nor-Non-Perception, and Cessation of Perception and Feeling (6) Nine successive cessations (anupubba-nirodha): By the attainment of the first jhana, perceptions of sensuality (kama- sanna) cease; by the attainment of the second jhana, thinking and pondering cease; by the attainment of the third jhana, delight (piti) ceases; by the attainment of the fourth jhana, in- and out-breathing ceases; by the attainment of the Sphere of Infinite Space, the perception of materiality ceases, by the attainment of the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness, the perception of the Sphere of Infinite Space ceases; by the attainment of the Sphere of No-Thingness, the perception of the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness ceases; by the attainment of the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception, the perception of the Sphere of NoThingness ceases; by the attainment of the Cessation-of-Perception-and-Feeling, perception and feeling cease. These are the sets of nine things that the lord declared. . . '
There are sets of ten things perfectly proclaimed by the Lord. . .
(1) Ten things that give protection (natha-karana-dhamma): Here a monk (a) is moral, he lives restrained according to the restraint of the discipline, persisting in right behaviour, seeing danger in the slightest fault, he keeps to the rules of training; (b) he has learnt much, and bears in mind and retains what he has learnt. In these teachings that are beautiful in the beginning, the middle and the ending, which in spirit and in letter proclaim the absolutely perfected and purified holy life, he is deeply learned, he remembers them, recites them, recites them, reflects on them and penetrates them with vision (c) he is a friend, associate and intimate of good people (d) he is affable, endowed with gentleness and patience, quick to grasp instruction (e) whatever various jobs there are to be done for his fellow-monks, he is skillful, not lax, using foresight in carrying them out and is good at doing and planning (f) he loves the Dhamma and delights in hearing it, he is especially fond of the advanced doctrine and discipline (abhidhamme abhivinaye) (g) he is content with any kind of requisites: robes, alms-food, lodging, medicines in case of illness (h) he ever strives to arouse energy, to get rid of unwholesome states, to establish wholesome states, untiringly and energetically striving to keep such good states and never shaking off the burden (i) he is mindful, with a great capacity for clearly recalling things done and said long ago (j) he is wise, with wise perception of arising and passing away, that Ariyan perception that leads to the complete destruction of suffering.
(2) Ten objects for the attainment of absorption (kasinayata- nani): He perceives the Earth-Kasina, the Water-Kasina, the Fire-Kasina, the Wind-Kasina, the Blue Kasina, the Yellow Kasina, the Red Kasina, the White Kasina, the Space-Kasina, the Consciousness kasina,"above, below, on all sides, undivided, unbounded. (3) Ten unwholesome courses of action (akusala-kammapathi): taking life, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, lying speech, slander, rude speech, idle chatter, greed, malevolence, wrong view. (4) Ten wholesome courses of action: avoidance of taking life. . .(as (3) above). (5) Ten Ariyan dispositions (ariya-vasa): Here a monk (a) has got rid of five factors (b) possesses six factors (c) has established one guard (d) observes the four supports (e) has got rid of individual beliefs (f) has quite abandoned quest (g) is pure of motive (h) has tranquilized his emotions, is well liberated (i) in heart and (j) by wisdom. (a) How has he got rid of five factors? Here, he has got rid of sensuality, ill-will, sloth-and-torpor, worry-and-flurry, and doubt; (b) what six factors does he possess? On seeing an object with the eye, hearing a sound.. ., smelling a smell.. ., tasting a flavour.. ., touching a tangible object.. ., or recognising a mental object with the mind, he is neither pleased nor displeased, but remains equable, mindful and clearly aware (c) how has he established the one guard? By guarding his mind with mindfulness (d) what are the four supports? He judges that one thing is to be pursued, one thing endured, one thing avoided, one thing suppressed (e) how has he got rid of individual beliefs (panunna-pacceka-sacco)? Whatever individual beliefs are held by the majority of ascetics and Brahmins he has dismissed, abandoned, rejected, let go (f) how is he one who has quite abandoned quests? He has abandoned the quest for sense-desires, for rebirth, for the holy life (g) how is he pure of motive? He has abandoned thoughts of sensuality, ill-will, cruelty (h) how is he one who has tranquilized his emotions (passaddha-kaya-sankharo hoti)? Because, having given up pleasure and pain with the disappearance of former gladness and sadness, he enters into a state beyond pleasure and pain which is purified by equanimity, and this is the fourth jhana (i) how is he well emancipated in heart? He is liberated from the thought of greed, hatred and delusion (j) how is he well liberated by wisdom? He understands: "For me greed, hatred and delusion are abandoned, cut off at the root, like a palm-tree stump, destroyed and incapable of growing again."
(6) Ten qualities of the non-learner (asekha): The non- learner's right view, right thought; right speech, right action, right livelihood; right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration; right knowledge (samma-nanam), right liberation (sam- mavimutti). These are the sets of ten things which have been perfectly set forth by the Lord who knows and sees, the fully-enlightened Buddha.
So we should all recite them together without disagreement, so that this holy life may be long-lasting. Thus this is for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.
When the Lord had stood up, he said to the Venerable Sariputta: 'Good, good, Sariputta! Well indeed have you proclaimed the way of chanting together for the monks!' The monks were delighted and rejoiced at the Venerable Sariputta's words.
In summary, Venerable Sariputta alluding to the recent death of Mahavira, calls upon the monastics to recite the teachings of the Buddha in order to avoid the disgraceful state of affairs in the Jain order as per sutta 29. Venerable Sariputta decided to revise the teachings taught by the Buddha out of compassion and for the welfare for all so that this holy life will last a long time. The chanting items are arranged in 230 numbered sets of items starting with groups of one and ending with groups of ten things. With the Buddha’s approval, Venerable Sariputta reminded the monks of the core teachings.
The principles that were chanted are as follows:
Two sets of one thing;
33 sets of two things;
60 sets of three things;
50 sets of four things;
26 sets of five things;
22 sets of six things;
14 sets of seven things;
11 sets of eight things;
six sets of nine things;
six sets of ten things.
References: 1. www.accesstoinsight.org 2. https://suttacentral.net/ 3. The long discourses of the Buddha (Bhikkhu Bodhi)
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