Once the Lord was touring in the Malla country with a large company of about 500 monks. At Pava, the Mallas' capital, he stayed in the mango-grove of Cunda the smith. At that time a new meeting-hall of the Mallas of Pava, called ubbhataka had recently been built and it had not yet been occupied by any ascetic or Brahmin or by any human being. Hearing that the Lord was staying in Cunda's mango-grove, the Mallas went to see him. Having saluted him, they sat down to one side and said: 'Lord, the Mallas of Pava have recently erected a new meeting hall, may the Blessed Lord be the first to use it! Should you do so, that would be for the lasting good and happiness of the Mallas of Pava.' And the Lord consented by silence.
Noting his consent, the Mallas rose, saluted him, passed out to his right and went to the meeting-hall. They spread mats all round, arranged seats, put out a water-pot and an oil- lamp, and then returning to report what they had done saying: 'Whenever the Blessed Lord is ready.' Then the Lord dressed, took his robe and bowl and went to the meeting-hall with his monks. There he washed his feet, entered the hall and sat down against the central pillar, facing east. The monks, having washed their feet, entered the hall and sat down along the western wall facing east with the Lord in front of them. The Pava Mallas washed their feet, entered the hall, and sat down along the eastern wall facing west, with the Lord in front of them.
Then the Lord spoke to the Mallas on Dhamma till far into the night, instructing, inspiring, firing and delighting them. Then he dismissed them, saying: 'Vasetthas, the night has passed away. Now do as you think fit.' So they got up, saluted the Lord, and went out, passing him by on the right. As soon as the Mallas had gone, Lord Buddha surveyed the monks sitting silently and said to the Venerable Sariputta: 'The monks are free from sloth-and-torpor, Sariputta. You think of a discourse on Dhamma to give to them. My back aches, I want to stretch it." Sariputta agreed. Then the Lord, having folded his robe in four, lay down on his right side in the lion-posture, with one foot on the other, mindful and clearly aware and bearing in mind the time to arise.
Now at that time the Nigantha Nataputta had just died at Pava. At his death the Niganthas were split into two parties, quarreling and disputing. (as per Sutta 29). Then Venerable Sariputta addressed the monks, referring to this situation and said: 'So ill-proclaimed was their teaching and discipline, so unedifying displayed, and so ineffectual in calming the passions, having been proclaimed by one who was not fully enlightened. But friends, this Dhamma has been well proclaimed by the Lord, the fully-enlightened One. Thus shall we should all recite it together without disagreement, so that this holy life may be enduring and established for a long time, thus to be for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans. And what is this Dhamma that has been well proclaimed by the Lord? There is one thing that was perfectly proclaimed by the Lord who knows and sees, the fully-enlightened Buddha. So we should all recite together. 'What is this one thing?' (I) All beings are maintained by nutriment (Eko dhammo). (2) All beings are maintained by conditions (aharatthitika).
'There are sets of two things that were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord, which are they?' (I) Mind and body (niman ca rupan ca). (2) Ignorance and craving for existence (avijja ca bhavatanha ca). (3) Belief in [continued] existence and belief in non-existence (bhava-ditthi ca vibhava-diffhi ca). (4) Lack of moral shame and lack of moral dread (ahirikan ca anottappari ca). (5) Moral shame and moral dread (hiri ca ottappari ca). (6) Roughness and friendship with evil (dovacassata ca papamittata ca). (7) Gentleness and friendship with good (sovacassata ca kalyanamittata ca). (8) Skill in knowing offences and the procedure for rehabilitation from them (apatti-kusalatLa ca apatti vutthana kusalata ca (9) Skill in entering and returning from jhana] (samapatti- kusalata ca samapatti-vutthana-kusalatla ca (10) Skill in knowing the 18 elements and in paying attention to them (dhatu-kusalata ca manasikara-kusala- ta ca) (11) Skill in knowing the 12 sense-spheres (ayatana- k) and dependent origination. (12) Skill in knowing what are causes and what are not (thana-k. ca atthana-k.) (13) Straightforwardness and modesty (ajjavan ca lajjavan ca) (14) Patience and gentleness (khanti ca soraccan ca). (15) Gentle speech and politeness (sakhalyan ca patisantharo ca). (16) Non-harming and purity (avihimsi ca soceyyan ca) (17) Lack of mindfulness and of clear awareness (muttha- saccan ca sampajannan ca). (18) Mindfulness and clear awareness (sati ca sampajannan ca). (19) Unguarded sense-doors and non-restraint in eating (... guttadvarata ca bhavana-balan ca). (20) Guarded sense-doors and restraint in eating (. . .guttadvarata. . . mattannuta). (21) Powers of reflection and mental development (pati- sankhana-balan ca bhavana-balan ca). (22) Powers of mindfulness and concentration (sati-balan ca samadhi-balan ca). (23) Calm and insight (samatho ca vipassana ca). (24) The sign of calm and grasping the sign (samatha-nimittan ca paggaha-nimittan ca). (25) Exertion and non-distraction (paggaho ca avikheppo ca). (26) Attainment of morality and right view (sila-sampada ca ditthi-sampada ca). (27) Failure of morality and view (sila-vipatti ca ditthi- vipatti ca). (28) Purity of morality and view (sila-visuddhi ca ditthi-visuddhi ca (29) Purity of view and the effort to attain it (ditthi-visuddhi kho pana yatha ditthissa ca padhanam). (30) Being moved to a sense of urgency by what should move one and the systematic effort of one so moved (samvego ca samvejaniyesu thanesu samviggassa ca yoniso padhanam). (31) Not being content with wholesome acts and not shrinking from exertion (asantutthiti ca kusalesu dhammesu appati- vanita ca padhanasmim). (32) Knowledge and liberation (vijja ca vimutti ca). (33) Knowledge of the destruction of the defilements and of their non-recurrence (khaye nanam anuppade nanam). These are the sets of two things that were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord.. .So we should all recite them together ...
There are sets of three things, Which are they?
(1) Three unwholesome roots: of greed, hatred, delusion (lobho akusala-mulam, doso akusala-mulam, moho akusala-mulam). (2) Three wholesome roots: of non-greed, non-hatred non- delusion (3) Three kinds of wrong conduct: in body, speech and thought (kaya-duccaritam, vaci-duccaritam, mano-duccaritam). (4) Three kinds of right conduct: in body, speech and thought (5) Three kinds of unwholesome thought (akusala-vitakka): of sensuality, of enmity, of cruelty (kama-vitakko, vyapada- vitakko, vihimsa-vitakko). (6) Three kinds of wholesome thought: of renunciation (nekkhamma-vitakko), of non-enmity, of non-cruelty. (7) Three kinds of unwholesome motivation sankappa): through sensuality, enmity, cruelty. (8) Three kinds of wholesome motivation: through renunciation (nekkhamma), non-enmity, non-cruelty. (9) Three kinds of unwholesome perception (sanna): of sensuality, of enmity, of cruelty. (10) Three kinds of wholesome perception: of renunciation, of non-enmity, of non-cruelty. (11) Three unwholesome elements (dhatuyo): sensuality, enmity, cruelty. (12) Three wholesome elements: renunciation, non-enmity, non-cruelty. (13) Three more elements: the element of sense-desire, the element of form, the formless element (kama-dhatu, arupa- dhatu, nirodha-dhatu). (14) Three more elements: the element of form, the formless element, the element of cessation (rupa-dhatu, arupa-dhatu, nirodha-dhau). (15) Three more elements: the low element, the middling element, the sublime element (hina dhatu, majjhima dhatu, paniti dhatu). (16) Three kinds of craving: sensual craving, craving for craving for extinction (kama-tana, bhava- tanha, vibhava-tanha). (17) Three more kinds of craving: craving for the World of Sense-Desires, for the World of Form, for the Formless World (kama-tanha, rupa-tanha, arupa-tanha).
(18) Three more kinds of craving: for the World of Form, for the Formless World, for cessation (as for (14)). (19) Three fetters (samyojanani): of personality-belief, of doubt, of attachment to rite and ritual (sakkaya-ditthi, vici- kiccha, silabbata-paramaso). (20) Three corruptions (asava): of sense-desire, of becoming, of ignorance (kamasavo, bhavasavo, avijjasavo). (21) Three kinds of becoming: in the World of Sense-Desire, of Form, in the Formless World (kama-bhavo, rupa-bhavo, arupa-bhavo). (22) Three quests: for sense-desires, for becoming, for the holy life (kamesana, bhavesana, brahmacariyesana). (23) Three forms of conceit: "I am better than. . . ", "I am equal to. . . ", "I am worse than. . . " ("seyyo 'ham asmiti" vidha, "sadiso 'ham asmiti" vidha, "hino 'ham asmiti" vidha). (24) Three times: past, future, present (atito addha, anagato addha, paccuppanno addha). (25) Three "ends" (anta) personality, its arising, its cessation (sakkaya anto, sakkaya-samudayo anto, sakkaya-nirodho anto). (26) Three feelings: pleasant, painful, neither (sukha vedana, dukkha vedana, adukkham-asukha vedana). (27) Three kinds of suffering: as pain, as inherent in formations, as due to change (dukkha-dukkhata, sankhara-dukkhata, viparinama-dukkhata). (28) Three accumulations: evil with fixed result, good with fixed result, indeterminate (micchatta-niyato rasi, sammatta-niyato rasi, aniyato-rasi). (29) Three obscurations (tama): One hesitates (kankhati), vacillates (vicikicchati), is undecided (nadhimuccati), is unsettled (na sampasidati) about the past, the future, the present. (30) Three things a Tathagata has no need to guard against: A Tathagata is perfectly pure in bodily conduct, in speech and in thought (parisuddha-kaya, vaci-, -mano-samacaro). There is no misdeed of body, speech or thought which he must conceal lest anyone should get to hear about it. (31) Three lust, hatred, delusion ( (rago kincanam, dosa kincanam, moho kincanam). (32) Three fires: lust, hatred, delusion (ragaggi, dosaggi, mohohaggi.)
(33) 'Three more fires: the fire of those to be revered, of the householder, of those worthy of offerings (ahuneyyaggi, gahapataggi, dakkhineyyaggi). (34) Threefold classification of matter: visible and resisting, invisible and resisting, invisible and unresisting (sanidas- sana-sappatigham rupam, anidassana-sappatigham rupam, anidas- sana-appatigham rupam). (35) Three kinds of karmic meritorious, demeritorious, imperturbable (punnabhisankharo, apunnabhi- sankharo, anenjabhisankharo). (36) Three persons: the learner, the non-learner, the one who is neither (sekho puggalo, asekho puggalo, n'eva sekho nasekho puggalo). (37) Three elders: an elder by birth, in Dhamma, by convention (jati-thero, dhamma-thero, sammuti-thero). (38) Three grounds based on merit: that of giving, of morality, of meditation (danamayam punna-kiriya-vatthu, silamayam punna-kiriya-vatthu, bhavanamaya punna-kiriya-vatthu). (39) Three grounds for reproof: based on what has been seen, heard, suspected (ditthena, sutena, parisankaya). (40) Three kinds of rebirth in the Realm of Sense-Desire (kamupapattiyo): There are beings who desire what presents itself to them (paccuppatthita-kama) and are in the grip of that desire, such as human beings, some devas, and some in states of woe. There are beings who desire what they have created (nimmita-kama),. . .such as the devas who Rejoice in Their Own Creation (Nimmanarati). There are beings who rejoice in the creations of others,. . .such as the devas Having Power over Others' Creation (Paranimmita-vasavatti). (41) Three happy rebirths (sukhupapattiyo): There are beings who having continually produced happiness now dwell in happiness, such as the devas of the Brahma group. There are beings who are overflowing with happiness, drenched with it, full of it, immersed in it, so that they occasionally exclaim: "Oh what bliss!" such as the Radiant devas (Abhassara). There are beings immersed in happiness, who, supremely blissful, experience only perfect happiness, such as the Lustrous devas (Subhakinna). (42) Three kinds of wisdom: of the learner, of the non-learner, of the one who is neither.
(43) Three more kinds of wisdom: based on thought, on learning [hearing], on mental development [meditation] (cintamaya panna, sutamaya panna, bhavanamaya panna). (44) Three armaments (avudhani): what one has learnt, detachment, wisdom (sutavudham, pavivekavudham, pannavudham). (45) Three faculties: of knowing that one will know the unknown, of highest knowledge, of the one who knows (anannatam-nassamitindriyam, annindriyam, annata-v-indriyam). (46) Three eyes: the fleshly eye, the divine eye, the eye of wisdom (mamsa-cakkhu, dibba-cakkhu, panna-cakkhu). (47) Three kinds of training: in higher morality, higher thought, higher wisdom (adhisila-sikkha, adhicitta-sikkha, adhipanna-sikkha). (48) Three kinds of development: of the emotions, of mind, of wisdom (kaya-bhavana, citta-bhavana, panna-bhavana). (49) Three "unsurpassables": of vision, of practice, of liberation (dassananuttariyam, patipadanuttariyam, vimuttanuttari- yam). (50) Three kinds of concentration: with thinking and pondering, with pondering without thinking, with neither (sa- vitakko savicaro samadhi, avitakko vicara-matto samadhi, avitakko avicaro samadhi). (51) Three more kinds of concentration: on emptiness, the "signless", desireless (sunnato samadhi, animitto samadhi, appanihito samadhi). (52) Three purities: of body, speech, mind (kaya-socceyyam, vaci-socceyyam, mano-socceyyam). (53) Three qualities of the sage:as to body, speech, mind (kaya-moneyyam, vaci-moneyyam, mano-moneyyam). (54) Three skills: in going forward, in going down, in means to progress (aya-kosallam, apaya-kosallam, upaya-kosallam). (55) Three intoxications: with health, with youth, with life (arogya-mado, yobbana-mado, jivita-mado). (56) Three predominant influences: oneself, the world, the Dhamma (attadhipateyyam, lokadhipateyyam, dhammadhipateyyam). (57) Three topics of discussion: ~aik may be of the past: "That's how it used to be"; of the future: "That's how it will 1 be"; of the present: "That's how it is now." , (58) 'Three knowledges: of one's past lives, of the decease and rebirth of beings, of the destruction of the corruptions (pubbenivisbnussafi-fiinam vijji, sattinam cutupapite fiinam vil- ji, isavinam khaye fiinam vilji). I (59) 'Three abidings: deva-abiding, Brahma-abiding, the Ariyan abidingloS5 (dibbo viharo, Brahrnii-vihiro, ariyo viharo). (60) 'Three miracles:1056 of psychic power, of telepathy, of instruction (iddhi-pitihiriyam, adesani-pitihiriyam, anusisanl- I patihiriyam). 'These are the [sets of] three things.. .So we should all recite together.. .for the benefit, welfare and happiness of I devas and humans.'  1 1 1.11. 'There are [sets of] four things which were perfectly pro- claimed by the Lord. . . I (I) 'Four foundations of mindfulness: Here a monk abides I contemplating body as body, ardent, clearly aware and mind- ful, having put aside hankering and fretting for the world; he abides contemplating feelings as feelings. . . ; he abides con- I templating mind as mind. . .; he abides contemplating mind- objects as mind-objects, ardent, clearly aware and mindful, 1 having put aside hankering and fretting for the world. (2) 'Four great efforts (sammappadhiina): Here a monk rouses his will, makes an effort, stirs up energy, exerts his mind and I strives to prevent the arising of unarisen evil unwholesome I I mental states. He rouses his will.. .and strives to overcome evil unwholesome mental states that have arisen. He rouses I his will. . .and strives to produce unarisen wholesome mental states. He rouses his will.. .and strives to maintain whole- I some mental states that have arisen, not to let them fade away, to bring them to greater growth, to the full perfection of development. I (3) 'Four roads to power (iddhipadii): Here a monk develops concentration of intention accompmied by effort of will, con- centration of energy,. . .  concentration of consciousness, and concentration of investigation accompanied by effort of will. (4) 'Four jhanas: Here a monk, detached from all sense-de-